The polish healthcare system
The healthcare system in Poland is based on common health insurance. The mandatory healthcare contribution which amounts to 9% of salary is made to the National Health Fund through the Department of Social Insurance. The NHF finances healthcare services which are provided to the insured and it reimburses medicines.
A portion of healthcare contributions is financed from taxes: the state budget or special purpose funds make healthcare contributions among others for: students, farmers and their family members as a part of the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund (KRUS), employment agencies - for the unemployed, social welfare centers - for non-working persons, not registered in employment offices, meeting the income criterion, the state budget - for the clergy.
Some healthcare procedures under the universal public health care system, including highly specialized services are funded directly by the state budget (e.g. Emergency Medical Services).
Apart from the NHF and the state budget expenditure of universal public healthcare is financed to a small extent by the employers (services referring to occupational medicine).
Co-payment within the public health care system
In the Polish health protection system, co-paying by patients for medical services is marginal. Except for insurance contributions, persons insured under the National Health Fund do not bear other costs of treatment. However the exceptions include:
- medications, some of which are available for a lump sum or a partial payment
- the Nursing Treatment Centre services are available for lump sum payment
- some parts of dental care for adults, the costs of which are borne by the patient.
The financing of health care from private resources comes to great extent directly from households. The role of employers (through health service packages) and the insurance companies (additional medical insurance), though relatively small is still growing.
Additional health insurance
Commercially available additional health insurance is offered based on "general" law on insurance activities. Works on the Act on supplementary health insurance, which would introduce specific solutions to the health care system, have not yet been completed.
Health care providers
Both private and public entities operate on the market of healthcare services. It should be noted that healthcare services performed by private entities can be either payable of free of charge for patients. In the latter case the payer is the National Health Fund, based on the an agreement concerning the provision of health care services (i.e. contracts), concluded pursuant to the same terms and conditions as in the case of public entities.
Approximately 80% of the revenues of the EMC Medical Institute Capital Group are healthcare services financed by a system of universal health insurance.